Interest Expense: Calculation, Formula and Examples

how to figure out interest expense

The time period is the length of time over which the loan is being repaid. Interest expense appears on the income statement after operating income. In these formulas, I is the interest expense, P is the principal, r is the interest rate, t is the length of time in years, and n is the number of times per year that interest is compounded.

How to calculate interest expense

An interest coverage ratio of less than 3 is a negative sign, as it indicates that a company may have a hard time paying its interest expense with the current operating income. Interest expense often appears as a line item on a company’s balance sheet since there are usually differences in timing between interest accrued and interest paid. If interest has been accrued but has not yet been paid, it would appear in the “current liabilities” section of the balance sheet.

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Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers. Learn financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel shortcuts. Interest Expense represents the periodic costs incurred by a borrower as part of a debt financing arrangement.

  1. The formula for calculating the annual interest expense in a financial model is as follows.
  2. The interest expense formula can be used to calculate the interest expense of any loan, including auto loans, mortgages, student loans, and credit card debt.
  3. Interest may take the form of interest payable or prepaid expenses.
  4. The effective annual interest rate is the total interest a company can expect to pay out on a loan or other debt obligation after taking into account compounding interest over the year.
  5. Here we look at interest expense in the context of evaluating a company’s profitability, as well as its relevance for your personal finances.


In short, the amount of interest expense owed is a function of a company’s projected debt balances and the terms stated in the original lending arrangement. The interest expense line item appears in the non-operating section of the income statement, because it is a non-core component of a company’s business model. If, on the other hand, ABC Company had only $20,000 in operating income, its interest coverage ratio would be 2.5. That would be indicative of a major issue with its ability to pay its interest expense on its debt obligations.

how to figure out interest expense

Our hypothetical company’s annual interest expense is forecasted as $990k in 2022, followed by an interest expense of $970k in 2023. The mandatory repayment reduces the ending debt balance, resulting in an ending balance of $19.6 million at the end of 2022. Therefore, the principal amortization is calculated by multiplying the $20 million debt balance by 2%, which is $400k each year. Compound interest calculations can get complex quickly because it requires recalculating the starting balance every compounding period.

At such times, investors and analysts pay particularly close attention to solvency ratios such as debt to equity and interest coverage. While mortgage interest is tax-deductible in the United States, it is not tax-deductible in Canada. The loan’s purpose is also critical in determining the tax-deductibility of interest expense. For example, if a loan is used for bona fide investment purposes, most jurisdictions would allow the interest expense for this loan to be deducted from taxes. Roberta returns to the bank and meets again with the loan officer.

However, some assets use simple interest for simplicity — for example bonds that pay an interest coupon. Investments may also offer a simple interest return as a dividend. To take advantage of compounding you would need to reinvest the dividends as added principal. For example, let’s say you take out a $10,000 loan at 5% annual three financial statements simple interest to repay over five years. The amount of interest expense for companies that have debt depends on the broad level of interest rates in the economy. Interest expense will be on the higher side during periods of rampant inflation since most companies will have incurred debt that carries a higher interest rate.

Interest expense can easily be explained as the cost of borrowing money or what the bank charges her to borrow the money. In accounting, the interest expense formula is used to calculate the amount of money that will be owed in interest on a loan. Depending on the type of loan, the interest expense may be simple or compound.

Interest expense is determined by a company’s average debt balance, i.e. the beginning and ending debt carrying amounts. To forecast interest expense in a financial model, the standard convention is to calculate the amount based on the average between the beginning and ending debt balances from the balance sheet. If its operating income is $160,000, it has an interest coverage ratio of 20. This is a good indicator that the company will have no problems covering its interest expense obligations with its operating income. Assume ABC Company has a $10 million loan at a fixed interest rate of 8%.

In a typical transaction, a lender would extend a certain amount of money to a borrower in addition to a negotiated term. This negotiated term is usually a fixed percentage of the amount the borrower and lender agreed to. If the same company takes on debt and has an interest cost of $500,000 their new EBT will be $500,000 (with a tax rate of 30%), and their taxes payable will now be only $150,000. The formula for calculating the annual interest expense in a financial model is as follows. The greater the percentage of the original debt principal paid down over the borrowing term, the more the interest expense declines, all else being equal. Simple interest works in your favor as a borrower, since you’re only paying interest on the original balance.

If ABC did not pay down its loan throughout the year and makes one payment at the end of the year, its annual interest expense will be $800,000. For example, a company with $100 million in debt at 8% interest has $8 million in annual interest expense. If annual EBIT is $80 million, then its interest coverage ratio is 10, which shows that the company can comfortably meet its obligations to pay interest. The interest coverage ratio is defined as the ratio of a company’s operating income (or EBIT—earnings before interest or taxes) to its interest expense. The ratio measures a company’s ability to meet the interest expense on its debt with its operating income. A higher ratio indicates that a company has a better capacity to cover its interest expense.

Borrowing money will enable them to maintain liquid and accessible cash reserves. He’s currently a VP at KCK Group, the private equity arm of a middle eastern family office. Osman has a generalist industry focus on lower middle market growth equity and buyout transactions. Volatility profiles based on trailing-three-year calculations of the standard deviation of service investment returns.

With $254 million in interest income for 2023, the net interest expense is $1.874 billion. The interest expense formula can be used to calculate the interest expense of any loan, including auto loans, mortgages, student loans, and credit card debt. To calculate interest expense, all three of these variables must be known. The principal and the interest rate are usually fixed, but the time period can vary. For example, let’s say someone takes out a loan for $ 10,000 at an interest rate of 5% per year.